The MEDIUM-Sized China’s Cities Project brings together European and Chinese entities (research centres, universities and companies), which work on sustainable urban development in China. Focusing on a large city and two medium-sized cities (1 to 3 million inhabitants), Hangzhou, Zhuhai and Datong, the project’s innovation is twofold: first it addresses urban sustainability from a socio-economic dimension and not only through the prism of environmental issues. Second it operates in fast-developing urban areas overlooked by scholars in comparison with China largest cities.
MEDIUM gathers researchers with very different backgrounds and interests, among which urban governance, strategic planning, urban mobility, inclusion of migrants, ICT or networks of multinational corporations.
Applying various approaches and methodologies, the project will contribute to better understand urban development dynamics in Chinese medium-sized cities so as to inform decision-makers and economic actors. It will allow innovative ideas to emerge and give rise to alternative patterns of urban development, smart, sustainable and socially inclusive.
The main goal of MEDIUM is to study the dynamics of Chinese urbanization, focusing on medium-sized cities (according to Chinese parameters), their planning and governance, and the advantages these provide in terms of quality of life, access to services and facilities, as well as to the introduction of more sustainable production patterns and strategies for resource management.
Other objectives of the project are:
– to train European researchers and post-doc as experts of Chinese urban issues;
– encourage the knowledge and adoption of collaborative approaches to urban management;
– identify business opportunities for European and Chinese companies.
Essential characteristics of the project are dialogue and collaboration and the sharing of experiences between China and Europe since rapid urbanization, and its high pressure on the environment, is one of China’s key challenge. Top-down policies and technological innovation are not sufficient to address so complex – local and global – issues. These, on the contrary, could generate unexpected consequences (side effects) that might create, in turn, even new problems. MEDIUM partners’ vision is that more resilient policies and the engagement of different stakeholders in cities’ planning and management are needed.
According to the project, a team of different European researchers will conduct research and cooperation activities directly on the field together with Chinese partners. In each city, one per year, MEDIUM will organize a stakeholder workshop adopting participative techniques, a scientific seminar (as an opportunity for mutual learning for European and Chinese researchers), and an annual Conference to which different key actors will be invited (i.e. scholars, planners and urban developers, policy makers, entrepreneurs, civil society representatives, etc.).
years research program
Over the past thirty years, China has recorded remarkable economic performance through steady integration with the global economy. This change has been inextricably linked with intense urbanization. In 1979, 18 percent of Chinese lived in cities, but this had surged to 54 percent by 2013, while the official number of cities (shi) increased from 193 to 9000. However, the virtuous circle of urbanization-economic growth has also created severe environmental problems. In 2010, China became the largest global energy consumer, and, with coal accounting for 69 percent of its consumption, is also the biggest energy-related CO2 emitter in the world (US Energy Information Administration 2014).
As a response to ecological issues, the Chinese central government established a set of environment protection standards at national and local levels — amounting to over 800 standards by the end of 2005. The 11th five-year plan (2005-2010) also introduced for the first time a target ratio (20% by 2010) aimed at reducing energy consumption per unit GDP.
MEDIUM’s main action will take place in three medium-sized Chinese cities that will serve both as case studies for empirical research and as nodes for networking activities.
The three cities have been carefully selected to represent different types of urban profiles: an advanced prosperous coastal city (Hangzhou), an ethnically diversified regional centre (Zhuhai), and an inland resource-based city undergoing an industrial conversion (Datong). Particular attention was given to the position of these urban areas within the system of ‘city clusters’ defined by Mc Kinsey (2011, i.e. areas presenting distinct characteristics in terms of their demographics, industry structure and consumer profiles). The purpose of this is to ensure sufficient business potential for European firms. Although the three cities are involved in —or are at the head of— clusters of different sizes, they are all close to the major mega city clusters centered on Beijing-Tianjin, Shanghai and Guangzhou.
Located in the northern part of Shanxi Province, Datong is the second largest city in the province with a population of 3.3 million inhabitants.
This prefecture-level city has an urban surface of over 14 square kilometers. In recent decades, Datong was famous for being a leading coal-production center. Labelled “China’s capital city of coal”, Datong had been one of China’s most polluted cities.
Trying to redesign the image of his city, former Mayor Geng Yanbo introduced a global and radical new urban plan in 2008, in order to develop tourism and alternative energy. Important construction work was carried out to redevelop Datong according to its ancient glorious past as a strategic city. However, in 2012, Geng’s sudden appointment in Shanxi’s capital city Taiyuan stopped this ambitious city planning program from completion. The city currently appears “in transition”…
With a population of more than 4 million inhabitants (plus about other 2 millions migrants), Hangzhou, is a coastal and transitional city with a position at the forefront of urban socio-technic innovations. It’s a so-called ‘second-tier’ city in China’s urban hierarchy (first-tier are Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou and Shenzhen), which nowadays heads a mega city cluster in the prosperous Zhejiang province (the Hangzhou Metropolitan Area covers 16,596 square kilometers with a population of 8.9 million). The city is also known for its prosperous non-state economy, especially Town and Village Enterprises and domestic private industries, and for the prominence of SMEs and private firms and for an innovative approach in urban policy. Also the urban strategies contained in the city master plans, i.e. development zones, administrative annexation, and new CBD have incredibly transformed the city since 1949 on. Indeed, Hangzhou is known for its scenic landscape and cultural heritage (i.e. the West Lake, the Gran Canal, etc.). However, the city lacked development space because nearly half of the territory was used for tourism and preservation areas, and this lack of space was a serious constraint on its economic growth. In 2001, the city of Hangzhou annexed two nearby counties, Xiaoshan and Yuhang, which opened up space for Hangzhou to expand towards the south and north.
Over time, Hangzhou’s efforts in mitigating built environment challenges have been recognized by domestic and overseas organizations, earning titles such as the United Nations Habitat Award, China Habitat Environment Prize, International Garden City, and National Environment Protection Model City. In 2013, Hangzhou was ranked No. 1 in Forbes’ Best Commercial Cities in Mainland China and topped China’s Happiest Cities (by the Xinhua News Agency) for ten consecutive years. Just to make some exampled: Hangzhou has been one of the pilot cities for policy initiatives such as land banking, land acquisition compensation, and economic comfortable housing and also its shared-bike system ranks first largest in the world.
Hangzhou Normal University is an institution of higher education whose history can be traced back to the Zhejiang Dual-Level Normal School founded in 1908. As a comprehensive institution, the university currently has a broad spectrum of disciplines in 11 major branches of learning, namely literature, history, philosophy, economics, management, law, education, science, engineering, medicine and arts. The university attaches equal importance to teaching and research, and MEDIUM YRs hosted in Cangqian campus, which is located in fast developing Yuhang District (annexed in 2001), can attend also the Chinese Language courses run by the School of International Education (up to HSK Level 6).
Zhuhai is a medium-sized city located in the Pearl River Delta: a prefecture-level city of 1.5 million inhabitants which was among the first towns witnessing the rise of Special Economic Zones in the 1980s, settled in one of the most dynamic areas in China. Many development models and policies have been generalized either from this or Shanghaiʼs area or from mixed models based upon the two. Zhuhai has been ranking first in the Urban Sustainable Development Index of China. Recently, in accordance with the new criteria for ecological, scientific and livable city building defined by the State Council of China, Zhuhai has been chosen to build the model for Chinese cities. Zhuhai has also been the first city to implement a digital urban management system, which involves a platform of 17 sub-systems such as a “city steward”, a comprehensive evaluation system and an emergency command system. All this urban management innovation will be considered and studied within MEDIUM activities.
MEDIUM project’s researchers will be based in Sun Yat-Sen University’s Zhuhai campus, which is one of 4 campuses of Sun Yat-Sen University created jointly by Zhuhai municipal government and Sun Yat-Sen University: a leading, comprehensive and multi-disciplinary University in the People’s Republic of China. Moreover, benefiting from its location near Hong Kong and Macao and the regional advantage of opening and economic development, the university has become an important base for training high-level talents, scientific research, providing services to society and inheriting cultural traditions. The University has also successfully built international cooperation and exchange relationships with many top universities in the world: all important features for the achievement of MEDIUM project’s objectives.
The MEDIUM work plan encompasses 4 Work Packages (WPs) whose leadership has been entrusted to project partners according to their expertise and responsibilities as detailed below:
WP1. Project management and overall coordination (CNRS)
WP2. Coordination of MEDIUM’s action in China (HZNU)
WP3. Organization of stakeholders’ meetings (S4S)
WP4. Dissemination & Communication activities (UNIVE)
The fact that MEDIUM focuses on the multiple challenges linked to urban sustainable development implies that close collaboration is required between all partners involved. Therefore, the management structure of the project has been designed to ensure a responsive and flexible management with limited decision-making bodies in order to ensure efficient cooperation between the participants.
Irene Poli and David Avra Lane
European Centre for Living Technology, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice (Italy)
She holds BA and MA degree in Sociology, a Ph.D. in Information Society at the University of Milano-Bicocca and a specialization on Participatory Local Action and Sustainable Urban Development at the IUAV University of Venice (Faculty of Architecture).
She has been teaching Sociology of Culture, Visual and Qualitative Research Methodologies at the University of Milan, University of Padua and European Institute of Design. Currently she is Associate researcher at ECLT within the EuropeAid project MEDIUM.
Since 2014 she is also President of the Visual Sociology Research Committee (RC57) of the International Sociological Association..
Her research in China concerns the transformations occurring on China’s urban fringes. In particular, she is conducting her fieldwork on the production of space and the perceptions/representations of China’s high-tech zones focusing on the dramatic changes on the rural-urban landscapes that their development entails. By looking at these areas – which are produced by, and are generators of, unedited representations of modernity, new lifestyles and imaginaries – such a research tries to beyond the ethnographic relevance of the case studies observed, to inquire the different perceptions and understanding that the various stakeholders implicated have of the complex transition at play. A further aim, indeed, is to unpack narratives and framing strategies but also to develop in depth analysis, scenarios and trans-disciplinary approaches that could be useful for the design of more resilient policies and planning.
Jean-Pierre Gaudin and Audrey Freiermuth.
Postdoctoral fellow at Sciences Po Aix (CHERPA), France.
She holds a PhD in Political Science from Sciences Po Paris. Her main research interests include power relationships at the neighbourhood level, administrative and social work of neighbourhood residents’ committees, urban housing, segregation, and housing conflicts in Beijing and Chongqing. She recently published « Gouverner par la communauté de quartier en Chine: ethnographie de la bureaucratisation participante des comités de résidents à Pékin », Revue française de science politique, vol. 65, n°1, February 2015.
Her latest research focuses on medium-size cities in China. She currently lives in Datong, in Shanxi province, where she studies the main political and social issues raised after the former mayor was transferred to another city. For instance, she tries to analyse the interactions between inhabitants and city representatives (information, conflict, mediation) during the process of demolition-relocation (chaiqian) in the city centre.
UMR Géographie-Cités, French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS).
She holds a BA and MA Degree in Oriental languages and civilizations (Chinese) from La Sapienza University of Rome.Last year she joined the Comparative political sociology Master Programme at Sciences Po Paris as a visiting student, discussing a research paper on Chinese rural-urban migrants integration in Wuhan.
Her research interests include urban development, rural migrants economic, spatial and social integration in medium and small Chinese cities, morphology and spatial dynamics of urban villages (chengzhongcun).
Her research will focus on the current situation of Chinese rural-urban migrants (nongmingong) in the city of Zhuhai, Guangdong province. Since Deng Xiaoping’s economic reforms (1978), China has witnessed a huge wave of internal migration from the countryside towards the Pearl River Delta region, and more recently towards other provinces. Rural migrants presence in the urban space has lately become intertwined with the development of Chinese small and medium-sized cities encouraging the creation of new forms of urban spaces and new standards of urban living.Favouring a qualitative approach, her empirical research will thoroughly analyse the different stakes behind rural migrants integration policies (on both national and local levels), migrants’ actual economic and social conditions as well as their participation in the urban life, in order to understand their role in China’s New Urbanization strategy.
UMR CNRS 8504 Géographie-cités
UMR-T 9403 IFSTTAR LVMT.
Juste Raimbault is a PhD candidate in geography (supervision by HDR A. Banos and MCF F. Le Nechet). Trained as an engineer at Ecole Polytechnique and at Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées with a specialty in urban systems (City, Environment, Transportation), he also holds a Msc in Complex Systems Science from Ecole Polytechnique. This multidisciplinary formation is due to and the source of broad research interests linked to the application of Complex Systems methods to the study of urban systems.
His thesis is focused on the study of Interactions between Networks and Territories, questioning in particular the construction of models for the co-evolution of land-use and transportation systems, and an associated geographical theory of co-evolutive networked territorial systems. Implications and applications range at various scales from e.g. the modeling of urban growth to the empirical study of transportation systems.
His work in China is aimed to collect empirical field support for the application of models: one at the meso-scale including decision making processes for transportation planning, applied on Guangzhou Mega-city Region, with a focus on the role of Zhuhai on regional development; the other at the macro-scale as a model of growth for Chinese cities, interrogating in particular the influence of medium-sized cities on global dynamics.
He also currently works on interdisciplinary collaborations from a Complex Systems Science perspective (in very different fields such as Ecology, Evidence-based Economics, Quantitative Finance, Urbanism, Epistemology).
UMR Géographie-Cités, French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS).
Iraklis Argyriou holds a Ph.D. from the Center of Energy and Environmental Policy at the University of Delaware, U.S. His doctoral dissertation focused on the area of urban sustainable energy development using the city of Philadelphia as a case of study. Iraklis has also completed MPhil and MSc studies on Energy Policy in the U.K. and a BSc degree in Physics in Greece.
Iraklis current research involves an empirical study in the area of strategic planning and smart city development. This work involves analyzing the political and economic dimensions of the design and application of smart city applications in the nexus of innovation, planning and urban space for a sample of Chinese cities. In particular, the key policy-related factors that drive smart city development within a multi-level governance environment for urban sustainability as well as the relevant role of a diverse range of stakeholders in the development of such type of initiatives will be explored. Based on the studied Chinese cases, wider theoretical and practical implications for the analysis of strategic planning and smart city development will be drawn.
Natacha Aveline, Denise Pumain, Céline Rozenblat.
UMR Géographie-Cités, French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS).
I’m interested in Geography and Urban Economy, (demography, quantitative geography and cartography, analysis of socio-economic policies and related outlook, spatial analysis) as well as in Statistical analysis, (integration, evaluation and improvement of data and metadata quality; management and analysis of statistical data; statistical computing and data modeling, multivariate statistical methods).
During the last four years I collected a huge amount of population and socio-economic data concerning Brazil within a project focusing on BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) European countries and United States aiming to investigate the connection between population, economic growth and economic specialization in different city systems characterized by a long standing urbanization (Cina, India, Europe), relatively new urbanization (Brazil, United States), different geographical peculiarities, historical paths and exogenous shocks, (such as colonialism for some cited countries).
Concerning this project I would like to examine the Chinese system of cities from a holistic point of view in order to discover which are the main peculiarities of Chinese medium cities, the evolution of their population, their functional specialization by means of the ORBIS database in collaboration with the University of Lausanne reporting the number of national and foreign firms operating within a circumscribed geographical region, their NACE codes (in order to define their statistical classification of economic activities), the number of employees involved in different specific sectors of economic activities focusing importantly on innovative activities such as research and development, real estate, bank, insurance and finance and finally the networks shaped by the interaction among different companies operating in the whole Chinese system. It is also my goal to compare directly the Chinese and the Brazilian system of cities since they are both development economies and members of the BRICS countries highlighting both their differences and similarities.
Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics – Ca’ Foscari University of Venice (Italy).
Marco Pesce holds a PhD in Environmental Sciences from the Ca’ Foscari University of Venice. His doctoral dissertation focused on the development and application of an integrated modelling methodology to assess the impacts of nutrients on aquatic ecosystems under the effects of climate change. Currently, he is a postdoctoral researcher at the Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics at the Ca’ Foscari University of Venice. He is also a certified auditor for ISO 9001 QMS, ISO 14001 EMS, ISO 50001 EnMS, and OHSAS 18001. During his academic years he has been involved in several European research projects (TIMBRE, 4FUN, GLOCOM and MEDIUM).
Marco’s current research is devoted to the study of the implementation of environmental strategies for companies aiming to introduce sustainability into their corporate strategy. In the framework of MEDIUM, Marco will conduct an evaluation on the state of implementation of the ISO 14001 standards on environmental management in China, specifically in the industrial estates of selected case studies among the ones investigated in the project: Zhuhai, Hangzhou and Datong. Industrial zones are an important reality of many Chinese cities, and their environmental impacts have important repercussions on urban sustainability. The ISO 14001 standard provides a framework to implement, maintain, and improve an environmental management system able to identify and control the environmental impacts and to continuously improve the environmental performance of companies. Its application can help Chinese industrial estates to minimize their impacts in the face of worsening environmental problems. The study will focus on investigating the state of application, the reasons for seeking ISO 14001 certification, the perceived benefits and risks, and the critical factors and extent of difficulty in implementing ISO 14001 in the selected case studies.
Sciences Po Aix (CHERPA).
Currently a PhD candidate in Political Science, Elise holds a master degree from Sciences Po Aix. Her main research interests include urban public policy, circulation of city governance expertise and circulation of smart cities “good practices” in China, especially in the Pearl River Delta Region.
Her PhD thesis focuses on the circulation and local appropriation of smart cities “good practices”. By analyzing the development of international standards, she aims to understand the conditions of existence of a “world” in which networks of internationalized actors cooperate. In the context of MEDIUM, she will lead a sociographical study of Zhuhai networks, that participate in the translation and implementation of a shared international framework of reference regarding smart city transition. By mapping the actors who share ideas and conventions about what a “smart” transition is, focusing on their career trajectories, and considering them as stakeholders of a specific and yet open socioeconomic environment, she wants to understand the prerequisites to the social existence of a field of expertise.
CNRS research director, Géographie-cités, Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne, France
Natacha Aveline, PhD in urban geography, is permanent research director at CNRS. She is affiliated with the research unit Géographie-cités (University Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne) and lectures at Science Po. She spent eleven years in East Asia as a visiting scholar in several universities and serving as director of the CNRS North Asia regional office based in Tokyo (2006-2010). Her recent research addresses the financialization of real estate and the provision of housing in East Asian aging societies (China, Hong Kong and Japan). She has led several research projects including MEDIUM.
Adapting the built environment to combine housing and care service provision for ageing populations— the case-study of Hangzhou.
Rapid demographic ageing has led China to move from a familial elder system of care to seeking for efficient and sustainable social care support. According to the so-called “9073” strategy initiated in 2011, senior living infrastructures will be built with the aim that 90% seniors will receive services at home, 7% seniors will receive community-based care and the other 3% will stay at nursing homes. A major challenge is to achieve a satisfactory balance between hardware (dedicated housing supply) and software (dedicated service supply) in Chinese cities. Although the academic literature addresses various dimensions of living arrangements for the elderly in China, little is known about the provision of built space that is needed to satisfy the combined needs of housing and care services. The project will address this issue by taking Hangzhou as a case-study. In-depth interviews will be conducted with a range of related players (real estate developers, care providers, managers of nursing homes, policy makers…) to figure out the process through which the built environment is being adapted to the needs of a rapidly ageing society.
Aureli Lojo Blesa is a Graduate in Humanities, specializing in Cultural Management, and Master of Science in Regional Planning. He is a PhD candidate in Geography at the Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB) (under direction of prof. Gemma Cànoves and prof. Mimi Li). His main research areas are Geography of Tourism, Tourism Sustainability and Tourism Management. He is researching Chinese tourism since 2014 and has been teaching Geography of Tourism at the UAB since 2016.
His dissertation is focused in understanding the recent development of Chinese tourism in urban destinations through three case studies. Firstly, he researches the tourist gaze over European destinations, taking the case of Spanish cities. Secondly, he is interested in the dispersion and distribution of the tourist activity in relation to the consumption of tourism spaces, products and culture, taking the case of Chinese outbound tourism. Thirdly, he aims to understand the characteristics of the Chinese travel culture in relation to the Chinese domestic tourism development. To this end, his work on China is aimed at investigating the production and consumption of a sustainable urban tourism product. He is doing fieldwork in Zhuhai, collecting information about local urban landscapes, tourism aesthetics and tourist place attachment.
Fabio Della Marra holds a MS degree in Computer Science Engineering and a PhD in Economics and Social Sciences from the University of Parma. His doctoral dissertation focused on the macroeconometric forecasting by means of dynamic factor models, under the supervision of professors M. Lippi and S. Sanfelici.
He is currently a postdoctoral researcher in Statistics at the Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics at the Ca’ Foscari University of Venice and at the European Centre for Living Technology (ECLT).
His research in the MEDIUM framework concerns the application of statistical methodologies to analyze the main socio-economic indicators describing the spatio-temporal evolution of Guangzhou during the last decade.
Lena Sanders (Scientific Coordinator-CNRS), Florent Resche Rigon (Project Manager-CNRS), Agnese Boscarol (Work Package Leader-Cà Foscari 2015-2017), Alessandra Bonesso (Work Package Leader-Cà Foscari 2018), Erik Gløersen (Work Package Leader-Spatial Foresight), Weiliang Zhang (Work Package Leader-Hangzhou Normal University), Andrea Critto (Supervisor-Cà Foscari), Nicolas Douay (Supervisor-CNRS), Audrey Freyermuth (Supervisor-SciencePo AIX), Irene Poli (Supervisor-Cà Foscari), Denise Pumain (Supervisor-CNRS), Jean-Pierre Gaudin (Supervisor-SciencePo AIX), Rozenblat Céline (Supervisor-Université de Lausanne), Chen Shuzhen (Liaison Professor-Shanxi Datong University), Chunshan Zhou (Liaison Professor-Sun Yat-Sen University), Crevoisier Olivier (Scientific Collaborator-Université de Neuchatel), Liao Liao (Scientific Collaborator-SciencePo AIX), Elfie Swerts (Scientific Collaborator-Université de Lausanne), Ludovic Chalonge (Scientific Collaborator-CNRS)
A CONSORTIUM of scholars from various disciplines will conduct the MEDIUM project: environmental science, political science, geography, history, sociology, urban & regional economy, and computing science. Coordinated by CNRS (France), it involves four co-applicants (Hangzhou Normal University in China, Science Po Aix in France, Ca’ Foscari University in Italy, Spatial Foresight GmbH in Luxembourg), and two associates in Switzerland (the universities of Lausanne and Neuchatel).
Founded in 1939, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique is a state-funded science and technology establishment placed under the authority of the French Minister for Research and Higher Education. CNRS has more than 1100 research units throughout France, which employ a large body of tenured researchers, engineers, and support staff. Laboratories are all linked by renewable four-year contracts, with bi-annual evaluation. As the largest fundamental research organization in Europe, CNRS is involved in all scientific fields of knowledge. It encourages collaboration through national, European and international projects, bringing strong administrative support to them, with dedicated staff on financial, legal, and administrative issues.
The Géographie-Cités laboratory (UMR 8504 – a research unit under joint supervision arrangement of CNRS and the Universities of Paris-Diderot 7 and Pantheon-Sorbonne 1) comprises some 60 researcher-lecturers or researchers, engineers, technicians and more than 70 phD students engaged in research combining theoretical and epistemological approaches, qualitative and quantitative methods, and empirical and comparative procedures. Three research teams with complementary objectives make up this unit: the C.R.I.A research team, the E.H.GO research team, the P.A.R.I.S research team.
Research work is organized according to seven key themes :
And to one transverse subject: Mobility and territoriality: experiences, concepts, issues. The objective of this cross-cutting theme is to bring answers to the following question: how can the concept and practices of mobility bring us to think over territorialities outside of classic binary representations? It is important to comprehend how mobility produces territoriality.
Geographie-Cités has been involved, both as partner and coordinator, in various international and European projects, e.g. ERC grants, ESPON and FP7 projects among others.
The Institute for Urban Studies (IUS) is a specialist research institution that combines the disciplines of geography, ecology, city planning, architecture, etc. Based on the development of the field of social sciences at Hangzhou Normal University (HNU), IUS aims to form an interdisciplinary and special study of urbanology. It maintains active relationships with the Hangzhou International Urbanology Center (of Hangzhou Municipal Government) and other relevant research centers and institutions across the world.
The IUS is consist of eleven researchers from different schools of HNU, including two invited researchers and one foreign researchers from other universities. The institution conducts the teaching in urbanology and related fields. Our Masters courses offer a broad interdisciplinary introduction to the study of the city, with a range from theory of urbanology, urban sociology, urban governance and public policies, space economy and city planning, world urban history, specific topics on urban geography and historic heritage, to urban fieldwork.
Main work in recent years: organized the project of urban studies, including programs of urbanology, transportation and local history and culture in HNU; presided projects on The Comparative Study on the Development Model of Small Cities in Zhejiang Province (2013-2015), Study on the Development of Urbanization in 5 Counties/Cities of Hangzhou (2013), Study on Countermeasures of Urban Agglomeration, Metropolitan Area and City Domain Network in Urban Development (2013-14), Study on the Development Mode of Beautiful Towns in the New-type Urbanization in Zhejiang Province (2013-14).
Sciences Po Aix is a public higher education institute created in 1956. It is one of ten Political Studies Institutes (IEP) in France, the only located near the Mediterranean coast. It is a “grande école” which delivers a high-quality qualification and prepares future man agers in both public and private sectors. The admission is determined by a competitive entrance examination.
Since January 2008 Sciences Po Aix has been endowed with a single research center named CHERPA (Beliefs, History, Territories, Political and Administrative Regulation). CHERPA is an integrated, pluridisciplinary structure, the purpose of which is to create unity between the research fields and to set up a new scientific project around three transversal axes : International Governance and Globalization; Mobilisations, Expertise and Political Processes; Governing Religion.
Ca’ Foscari University of Venice has an outstanding international reputation for excellence in teaching and research. Advanced research is developed in 8 departments and 20 interdisciplinary centers, among which the European Centre for Living Technology (ECLT, www.ecltech.org). Founded in 2005, and linked by convention to 17 European universities, research laboratories and companies. The Centre aims to create and develop a new area of science associated with technologies exhibiting life-like properties such as self-organization, adaptability and evolvability. Most of the current activities are mainly in the fields of sustainability, innovation and ICT, and have implications in local development, innovation and industry studies. ECLT also provides support and competences of coordination and planning to SMEs and creative industries. Over the years, ECLT has participated in several FP6 and FP7 projects (14 projects from the European Commission) and others from public Italian Institutions. Recently ECLT has been Coordinator of the EU funded projects INSITE: The Innovation Society, Sustainability and ICT, (2011-15 a Coordination Action aimed at constructing a research and practice community on Innovation, social sustainability and ICT and generating a debate on these issues at the European and international level), MD: Emergence by Design (2011-15 a Research project based on complex systems and innovation dynamics theories, that is developing also new approaches to the evaluation, monitoring and support of innovation projects and processes), and partner of GREEN-WIN: Green growth and win-win strategies for sustainable climate action (2015-2018).
Spatial Foresight GmbH, Luxembourg, is a private limited company founded in July 2007. Its subsidiary Spatial Foresight Germany was founded in 2013. Spatial Foresight staff have more than ten-years of professional experience in international research and consultancy in the field of territorial development across Europe. The company’s fields of activity comprise analysis and evaluation, process facilitation, strategy development, training and dissemination, territorial foresight processes, and European and comparative studies. The Spatial Foresight team members have extensive experience from a number of European projects e.g. for DG Regio, ESPON, INTERACT or INTERREG programmes, as well as national projects e.g. for the Nordic countries, Germany, Poland or Cyprus. Our projects cover more than 30 countries, and deal mainly with issues related to territorial development including data analysis and mapping, and regional development policies including EU Cohesion Policy, intergovernmental cooperation related to the Territorial Agenda and the understanding of different national approaches. Our team members have advised, among others, the Swedish, Polish, Cyprus and Luxembourg EU Presidencies on territorial cohesion matters, and drafted most of the available ESPON Synthesis Reports.
Founded in 1537, the University of Lausanne is composed of seven faculties where approximately 13,000 students and 2,700 researchers work and study. According to the European classification of the most influential schools and universities (University of Leiden), UNIL ranked 5th in 2013 (1st according to citations per publication). UNIL seeks to encourage cross-disciplinary researches with EPFL (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne) and is founding member of the UNESCO-UNITWIN Digital Campus of Complex System. The Institute of Geography and Sustainability (IGD) of UNIL will be participating in MEDIUM project. IGD is part of the Faculty of Geosciences and Environment which is essentially an inter-disciplinary faculty, since the disciplines studied include pure, experimental, and social sciences.
The University of Neuchatel is an internationally recognized institution as well as a university on a human scale. With 4380 students from Switzerland and beyond, it provides high quality teaching and support. Among different research groups, GRET (the Research Group in Territorial Economy) has been active in two main fields. First, territorial innovation models, and more precisely innovative milieu, were the developed in the context of the European research network on innovative milieus (GREMI), with recent research about the knowledge economy and sustainable innovation. Second the territorial aspects of financialization of the economy were developed, with specific researches about exchange rates, pension funds and corporate governance. Today, an accent is put on the construction of markets and value, with an emphasis on urban and territorial value, thanks to researches on large urban projects, on tourism, the presential and residential economy and finally on real estate markets. All these research projects are based on the same theoretical approach which postulates that economic phenomenon and territorial shapes are the two faces of a single coin.
Sun Yat-sen University, founded by Dr. Sun Yat-sen and with an educational tradition spanning over 100 years, is a preeminent research, academic and cultural center and the premier location for talent development in South China. Under the direct supervision of the Ministry of Education of the People’s Republic of China, and strongly supported by both the Ministry and Guangdong Province, Sun Yat-sen University has developed into a modern comprehensive university that enjoys a reputation as a top-tier university nationally and a renowned university internationally. With five campuses in the three cities of Guangzhou, Zhuhai and Shenzhen, and ten affiliated hospitals, the University is striving to become a world-class university and global center of learning.
Project Leader and Scientific Coordinator
Géographie-cités (CNRS/Paris I/Paris 7)
13 rue du Four F- 75006 Paris
Tel : 01 40 46 40 09
Fax: 01 40 46 40 09
CNRS professor at the Géographie-cités laboratory
University Paris I – Panthéon Sorbonne
Lena Sanders is Senior Researcher at the CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique). Her academic education is in statistics and in geography (Ph.D., University of Paris 7, 1984).
Her research concerns urban and regional geography, spatial analysis, spatial statistics, and modelling of complex spatial systems. She has been director of the laboratory Géographie-cités (CNRS – University Paris 1 – University Paris 7) from 2000 to 2009. She is coordinating the ANR Project TransMonDyn (Modelling the major transitions in the evolution of settlement systems in Old and New Worlds : environmental constraints, spatial interactions and social innovation in complex systems multi-scalar dynamics) which brings together geographers, archaeologists, historians, linguists, ecologists, statisticians, and computer scientists from France and US.
– Sanders L. (dir), 2017, Peupler la Terre. De la préhistoire à l’ère des métropoles, Presses Universitaires François Rabelais, Tours, 527 p.
– Sanders L, Ruas A.,(coord), 2015, Revue Internationale de Géomatique, numéro spécial : “La modélisation des dynamiques spatiales”, vol 25, n°3, 195
– Mathian H., Sanders L., 2014, Objets géographiques et processus de changement. Approches spatio-temporelles, Londres : ISTE-Editions, coll. Systèmesd’InformationGéographique, 178 p. English version (2014) : Geographical objects and process of change. Spatio-temporal approach, London, Wiley, coll. FOCUS- GIS and Territorial Intelligence Series, 158 p.
– Sanders L. (dir), 2007, Models in Spatial Analysis, London, ISTE, 319 p. (translation and adaptation of following one).
– Sanders L. (dir), 2001, Modèles en analyse spatiale, Hermes-Lavoisier, Paris, 333.
– ARCHAEOMEDES (auteur collectif), 1998, Des oppida aux métropoles, Paris, Anthropos, 280 p.
– Sanders L., 1992, Système de villes et synergétique, Paris, Economica-Anthropos, 274 p.
– Pumain D., Sanders L., Saint-Julien Th.,1989, Villes et auto-organisation, Paris, Economica, 191 p.
– Sanders L., 1989, L’analyse statistique des données en géographie, Montpellier, Alidade-RECLUS, 268 p.
School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-Sen University
No. 135, Xingang Xi Road, Guangzhou, 510275, P. R. China
M/P: 13312855533; 18602051533
– Visiting scholar, environmental impact assessment, University of British Columbia 1994.
– Postdoctoral study, application of GIS in regional and urban planning, University of East London, 1996-1997.
– Visiting scholar, transportation planning, University of Montreal, 1999.
– PhD, Sun Yat-sen University, 1994.
– MA, Henan University, 1988.
– BA, Central China Normal University, 1985.
– Urban internal spatial structure.
– Regional development and urban and rural planning.
The projects of National Natural Science Foundation of China.
– Formation mechanism and social spatial differentiation of middle class during the period of transition 2012.01-2016.12.
– Space growth of saving city 2010.01-2012.12.
– Study on urban development and spatial structure influenced by the non-public sectors of the economy 2002.01-2004.12.
– The development of functions of CBD and its space effect during the period of transition 1998.01-2000.12.
Recent main consultation projects.
– General planning of tourism development of Chaoan county.
– Education planning of the primary and secondary school in Guangzhou city.
– Study on social mobility and cicilization in Guangdong province.
– Problems of the implementation of planning in the Pearl River Delta and its countermeasures.
– Planning of affordable housing in Nanhai district of Foshan city between 2016 and 2020.
– Quality improvement and spatial layout optimization of Foshan city.
– General planning of land use in Doumen district of Zhuhai city.
– Zhou Chunshan, Xie Wenhai, 2015, Institutional Innovation of Urban-rural Planning under the Market Economy, Journal of Planners, 4, 42-47.
– Zhou Chunshan, Dai Dandan, 2015, Transition of Urbanization in the Pearl River Delta, Tropical Geography, 3, 343-353.
– Zhou Chunshan, Jin Wanfu, Shi Chenyi , 2015, Development strategy of the Pearl River Delta Urban Agglomeration under the current socioeconomic situation, Progress in Geography, 3, 302-312.
– Zhou Chunshan, Bian Yan, 2014, The Growth and Distribution of Population in Guangzhou City, Scientia Geographica Sinica, 9, 1085-1092.
University Ca’ Foscari of Venice
Dept. of Environmental Sciences Informatics and Statistics
Via delle Industrie 21/8
c/o INCA – VEGAPARK,
30175 Marghera-Venice, Italy
Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Italy
Euro-Mediterranean Centre for Climate Change (CMCC), Italy
Andrea Critto is Associate Professor of Environmental Chemistry and Environmental Risk Assessment and Management at the University Ca’ Foscari Venice. He has a Ph.D in Environmental Sciences at University Ca’ Foscari Venice. He was post-doctoral fellow at the University of Adelaide, Australia (2006), and at the Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing, China (2009-2011). Coordinator/partner of several international and national research projects, he is author/coauthor of more than 60 papers published by international peer reviewed journals.
He is member of: European Geosciences Union (EGU), Italian Society for Climate Sciences (SISC), Italian Society for Environmental & Cultural Heritage Chemistry, Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC). Actively involved in the Mediterranean Coastal (MEDCOAST) Foundation.
He has been a foreign expert confirmedbythe State Administration of Foreign Expert Affair of thePeople’sRepublic of China.
Development of research activities on Environmental Risk Assessment associated with: formulation of Environmental Quality Standards and planning of environmental monitoring; development of Decision Support Systems for the integration of environmental, technological, economical and societal issues; selection/comparison of remedial technologies for contaminated sites; nanotechnology; climate change environmental impacts.
Recent EU projects included in-depth investigation of: a) environmental risk related to engineered nanoparticles; b) assessment of environmental impacts of climate change; c) remediation of contaminated sites; d) risk based management of riverbasins; f) human health risks related to environmental stressors.
Sciences Po Aix (CHERPA), France
BA degree in Public Policy in Sun Yat-sen University in China and MA degree in Comparative Politics and Ph.D. in Public Policy at Sciences Po Aix (CHERPA) in France. Her doctoral dissertation focused on decentralization reforms, local relations between different levels of governments and the local governance in China focused on two provinces: Zhejiang Province and Sichuan Province.
Her main field of study are local governance, urban governance, decentralization and intergovernmental relationships in China. She focuses on development zones. She will analyze the character of local governments, such as “growth coalition” that excludes the participation of citizens and “anti-growth” coalition which was developed in an authoritarian country and then discuss whether these new trends can be seen as a certain pluralization of public action in China and how the governance in development zones can be defined.
Géographie-cités (CNRS/Paris I/Paris 7)
13 rue du Four F- 75006 Paris
Chercheur (délégation CNRS) / Researcher (CNRS visiting fellow)
French Centre for Research on Contemporary China (web site)
Maître de conférences en urbanisme / Associate Professor of Urban Planning
Nicolas Douay is associate professor of urban planning at the Université Paris‑7 Diderot and a researcher within the Géographie-cités laboratory (CRIA team). After obtaining his PhD, jointly supervised by the Université de Montréal and Aix–Marseille Université, he embarked upon a postdoctoral internship at the French Centre for Research on Contemporary China (CEFC Hong Kong) with the support of a Lavoisier postdoctoral grant in 2008 and 2009, and returned to the CEFC in 2015 as part of a CNRS (French National Centre for Scientific Research) delegation. His research compares urban-planning approaches in Asia (China & Hong Kong), Europe (France) and North America (Canada), and focuses on the process of metropolisation, particularly with regard to urban policies, territorial planning processes and the uses of digital technology.
For the MEDIUM project Nicolas is currently supervising the work of Iraklis Argyriou on strategic planning and smart city. This workinvolves analyzing the political and economic dimensions of the design and application of smart city applications in the nexus of innovation, planning and urban space for a sample of Chinese cities. In particular, the key policy-related factors that drive smart city development within a multi-level governance environment for urban sustainability as well as the relevant role of a diverse range of stakeholders in the development of such type of initiatives will be explored. Based on the studied Chinese cases, wider theoretical and practical implications for the analysis of strategic planning and smart city development will be drawn.
– For the entire list of publications not related to China and Hong Kong: http://www.parisgeo.cnrs.fr/spip.php?article101&lang=fr and www.researchgate.net/profile/Nicolas_Douay
– 2015 Douay N., “Aménagement de l’espace et mouvements sociaux urbains à Hong Kong,” in Trajectoires et territoires de l’urbain en Asie, lieux d’une autre modernité ?, M. Franck & T. Sanjuan (eds), Paris, CNRS Éditionspp. 207-219.
– 2015 Yang Z., Y. Long & N. Douay, 大数据对人文—经济地理学研究的促进与局限 (Opportunities and limitations of big data applications to human and economic geography: the state of the art), in地理科学进展- Progress in Geography, Vol. 34, No. 4, pp. 410-417, http://www.progressingeography.com/EN/Y2015/V34/I4/410.
– 2015 Douay N., “Vancouverism: hybridisation and spread of an urban model,” Metropolitics, 12 June 2015 http://www.metropolitiques.eu/Vancouverism-hybridisation-and.html.
– 2014 Douay N. & T. Cory, “Développement urbain durable en Chine : entre apprentissage et mirage marketing,” in Les grands projets urbains, Territoires, acteurs et stratégies, (dir. Hubert M., Raynaud MM. & Lewis P.), Montréal, Presses de l’Université de Montréal, pp. 239-262.
2014 Douay N., “Mouvements sociaux numériques et aménagement de l’espace,” in Informations sociales, 2014/5, No. 185 « La Chine des questions sociales », pp. 123-130, http://www.cairn.info/revue-informations-sociales-2014-5-page-123.htm.
Elfie Swerts has a PhD in geography from the University Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne. She carried out her PhD thesis (2009-2013) “Urban systems in India and China” (dir. D. Pumain and E. Denis,Lab. Géographie-Cités and French Institute of Pondicherry), founded by a “CIFRE fellowship (Industrial Agreement for Research Training) from Veolia Environment Recherche et Innovation(dir. M.Morvan).
Her PhD research focused on the dynamics of cities in China and India and the systems they form. The main challenge was to evaluate to what extent political or historical singularity could impact the structure and the dynamics of a system of cities. The comparison of the urban systems in China and India is based on dedicated database that have been constructed using comparable and harmonized principles.
During her PhD and a first post-doc in the ERC GeoDiverCity,she constructed two urban demographic and economic databases for China (ChinaCities, 9,000 cities of more than 10,000 inhabitants) and India (IndiaCities, 6,000 cities of more than 10,000 inhabitants). The originality is a standardized delineation of urban agglomerations using remote sensing images and geographical information system (GIS), which make Chinese and Indian cities comparable with urban entities similarly defined in other world regions.
As part of the French-Indian ANR SUBURBIN (Subaltern Urbanization in India),Elfie Swerts has conducted specific work onthe demographic and economic trajectories of Indian small towns (from 10,000 to 100,000 inhabitants).
Dr.Elfie Swerts is currently a Researcherat the University of Lausanne, involved inthe research project LOGIICCS (Likelihood of Orientations of the Global Integration of Indian and Chinese Cities’ Systems) she co-built with Pr. Céline Rozenblat, and funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF).The main goals of the LOGIICCS project is (1) to build studies on robust diachronic socio-economic description of urban systems; to make it correspond to the inter-urban network approach; (2) to develop some relevant theoretical combination of urban system and network approaches in order to confront networks developments with urban dynamics; (3) to build simulation models coupling urban and networks dynamics and assuming the probable effects of their interactions to explore possible future evolutions for long and middle terms.
As part of the ANR Finurbasie, Elfie Swerts work on the onshore capital flows to the Chinese real estate market.
– Swerts E. (2016), The substantial share of small towns in India’s system of cities, in TheSubaltern Urbanization in India, Denis E., Mukhopadhyay P. et Zerah M-H (Eds.), Springer, to be published.
– Swerts E. & Denis E. (2016), Mapping small towns’ productive and employment configurations, in TheSubaltern Urbanization in India, Denis E., Mukhopadhyay P. et Zerah M-H (Eds.), Springer, to be published.
– Swerts E. & Liao L. (2016) The Chinese Urban Systems, in International and Transnational Perspectives on Urban Systems Rozenblat C., Pumain D. and Velasquez E. (Eds.), MIT Press, International Geographical Union and UN-Habitat.
Swerts E. & Denis E. (2015), Megacities: the Asian Era in R.B Singh (ed) Urban Development Challenges, Risks and Resilience in Asian Mega Cities, Springer, 2015.
– Swerts E. & Pumain D. (2015). 从国际比较角度看中国城市化近来的趋势 (translation: the recent trends of the Chinese urbanization in an international comparison perspective) proceedings from the conference « International Conference on China’s Urban Transformation and Restructuring », 13th-15th dec. 2013, Guangzhou, Shenjing He (ed.), SAGE,Urban Studies, pp 94-104.
Work Package Leader
Tel. +33 6 89 82 05 94
Erik Gløersen holds a PhD in Human Geography (University of Rennes 2,) an MA in Spatial Analysis and Modelling (University of Paris 1 – Panthéon Sorbonne) and an MSc in Geographic Information Science (ENSG). He has worked in the field of applied research in territorial development since 2001, first as a research fellow at Nordregio, the Nordic Council of Ministers’ Centre for Regional Development and then as a Senior Consultant at Spatial Foresight. Since 2009 he also works as a researcher and teacher at the University of Geneva.
Erik’s current research and consultancy activities cover different fields:
– Macro-regional cooperation in Europe, with a focus on challenges of multi-level governance and on the development of methods to map networking dynamics. His research has in particular focused on the Baltic Sea Region and on the Alpine Region.
– Balanced and harmonious development in regions with geographic specificities, e.g. mountain regions, islands, sparsely populated areas and remote rural areas;
– Services of General Interest in Europe, and their contribution to cohesive territorial development.
– Gløersen, Erik, Marius Drăgulin, Marius Drăgulin, Silke Haarich, Sabine Zillmer, Frank Holstein, Christian Lüer, Sebastian Hans (2016) Services of General Interest in the Funding Period 2014-2020, European Parliament.
– Gløersen, Erik and Jacques Michelet (2014) Stratégies de développement dans les zonesrurales et de montagne : expériences européennes in Montagna, 2014, vol. 4, p. 14-16.
– Mayer, Heike, Daniel Baumgartner, Erik Gløersen, and Jacques Michelet (2014) Theoretical basis for a coherent federal strategy for mountain and rural areas in Switzerland, Berne: State Secretariat for Economic Affairs SECO.
– Mayer, Heike, Daniel Baumgartner, Erik Gloersen and Jacques Michelet (2014) Mountain and rural economies under pressure: Identifying global and national challenges for sustainable economic development in mountain and rural areas in Switzerland.
– Gløersen, Erik (2012) « Renewing the theory and practice of European applied territorial research on mountains, islands and sparsely populated areas” in Regional Studies, Volume 46, Issue 4, pp. 443-457.